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1.The diagram below represents the four pairs of homologous chromosomes in a cell of a fruit fly before exposure
to radiation ( A ) and after exposure to radiation ( B ).
The appearance of the chromosomes in B indicates that exposure to radiation has caused
(1) crossing-over
(3) segregation and recombination
(2) chromosomal alterations
(4) nondisjunction
2.A cell undergoing synapsis during meiosis is represented above. Which diagram below best represents a gamete
that formed from this cell and that contains a mutation caused by chromosome breakage and reattachment?
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
3.Sometimes a section of a chromosome is lost during meiosis. This loss results in a change in genetic material
known as
(1) a deletion
(2) replication
(3) crossing-over
(4) polyploidy
4.Which statement best describes chromosomal mutations?
(1) They only involve changes in the chromosome number.
(2) They only involve changes in the chromosome structure.
(3) They involve changes in the chromosome number or the chromosome structure.
(4) They never involve changes in the chromosome number or the chromosome structure.
5. An analysis of chromosomes may show the loss of a portion of a chromosome. This type of chromosomal change
is known as
(1) nondisjunction
(2) an addition
(3) translocation
(4) a deletion
6.The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate from each other is known as
(1) crossing-over
(2) disjunction
(3) nondisjunction
(4) synapsis
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7.In certain plants, each cell contains double the normal chromosome number. These 4 n cells are an example of the
condition known as
(1) replication
(2) diploidy
(3) polyploidy
(4) disjunction
8.The diagram below illustrates the results of random breakage and recombination of genetic material.
The process illustrated in the diagram is an example of
(1) a single gene mutation
(3) synapsis
(2) a chromosomal alteration
(4) segregation
9.Which change involves the loss of part of a chromosome?
(1) deletion
(2) addition
(3) base substitution
(4) gene mutation
10.Which change in chromosome structure involves the transfer of one section of a chromosome to a
nonhomologous chromosome?
(1) nitrogenous base substitution
(3) crossing-over of linked genes
(2) translocation
(4) gene mutation
11.Which illustration of a chromosomal change best represents a chromosome mutation known as a deletion?
(1)
(3)
(2)
(4)
12.A chromosomal alteration in which one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes fail to separate normally
during meiotic cell division is known as
(1) an addition
(2) crossing-over
(3) nondisjunction
(4) translocation
13.Which statement best describes a chromosomal alteration?
(1) It never affects the phenotype of an organism.
(2) It may affect the phenotype of an organism.
(3) It always produces a recessive genotype in an organism.
(4) It never has an effect on the genotype of an organism.
14.In a species of plant, the sudden appearance of one plant with a different leaf structure would most likely be the
result of
(1) stable gene frequencies
(3) slow environmental changes
(2) chromosomal mutations
(4) asexual reproduction
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